Comparison of essential oils compositions of Nepeta persica obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation methods
Essential oil of Nepeta persica cultivated in Iran was obtained by steam distillation and supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction methods. The oils were analysed by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70 eV). The effects of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume and extraction times (dynamic and static) on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of N. persica oil were investigated. The results showed that under the pressure of 20.3 MPa, temperature of 45 °C, methanol of 1.5% v/v), dynamic extraction time of 50 min and static extraction time of 25 min extraction was more selective for the 4αβ,7α,7aα-nepetalactone. Twelve compounds were identified in the steam-distilled oil. The major components of N. persica were 4αβ,7α,7aα-nepetalactone (26.5%), cis-β-farnesene (4.4%) and 3,4α-dihydro-4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone (3.5%). However, by using supercritical carbon dioxide under optimum conditions, only two components have more than 90.0% of the oil. The extraction yield based on steam distillation was 0.08% (v/w). On the other hand, using SFE extraction yield in the range of 0.22–8.90% (w/w) were obtained at different conditions. The results show that, in Iranian N. persica oil, 4αβ,7α,7aα-nepetalactone is a major component.
Journal: Food and Bioproducts Processing - Volume 88, Issues 2–3, June–September 2010, Pages 227–232