In vitro structural changes in porous HA/β-TCP scaffolds in simulated body fluid
Porous scaffolds of biphasic calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)) have been fabricated and changes induced both in phase composition and porous architecture by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) under static and orbital stirring conditions have been studied. The starting porous scaffolds exhibit a low and randomized micro- and mesoporosity, an interconnected macroporosity centered at 100 and 0.6 μm, a fractal connectivity of D = 2.981 and total percent porosity of ca. 80%. After immersion for up to 60 days the micro- and mesoporosity increase slightly, which could be attributed to dissolution of the β-TCP phase confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the change in the porous framework with SBF immersion time favor the bioactive behavior of the tested materials, inducing a nucleation and growth of a nanocrystalline apatite phase as the interconnected macroporosity centered at 0.6 μm is reduced. The macroporosity centered at 100 μm is still stable after 60 days in SBF. Therefore, these biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds combine bioactive behavior with the stability of interconnected macroporosity over large periods of soaking time in SBF under static and orbital stirring conditions.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 5, Issue 7, September 2009, Pages 2738–2751