Detoxification and anti-nutrients reduction of Jatropha curcas seed cake by Bacillus fermentation
Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from oil extraction of J. curcas seed. Although it contains a high amount of protein, it has phorbol esters and anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and saponin. It cannot be applied directly in the food or animal feed industries. This investigation was aimed at detoxifying the toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation with Bacillus spp. Two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Bacillus strains used in the study were Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with solid-state and submerged fermentations. Solid-state fermentation was done on 10 g of seed cake with a moisture content of 70% for 7 days, while submerged fermentation was carried out on 10 g of seed cake in 100 ml distilled water for 5 days. The fermentations were incubated at the optimum condition of each strain. After fermentation, bacterial growth, pH, toxic and anti-nutritional compounds were determined. Results showed that B. licheniformis with submerged fermentation were the most effective method to degrade toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the seed cake. After fermentation, phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 62%, 42% and 75%, respectively, while lectin could not be eliminated. The reduction of phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor was related to esterase, phytase and protease activities, respectively. J. curcas seed cake could be mainly detoxified by bacterial fermentation and the high-protein fermented seed cake could be potentially applied to animal feed.
Journal: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - Volume 115, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 168–172