Compare the effects of chondrogenesis by culture of human mesenchymal stem cells with various type of the chondroitin sulfate C
Chondroitin sulfate C (CSC) is a kind of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with molecular weights of 10,000 to 50,000 Da and a high charge density. GAGs are major components in extracellular matrix (ECM), which play important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In this study, we studied the effects of chondroitin sulfate C (CSC) on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward the chondrocyte lineage. The MSCs were either cultured on type II collagen (COL II) scaffolds with high molecular weight CSC addition in the medium (free CSC) or with free oligosaccharide CSC. Special attention was given to the effects of MSCs cultured on CSC cross-linked type II scaffolds (cross-linked CSC). According to the analysis of histology stain, gene expression, and ECM secretion, our results showed that MSCs cultured with free CSC, free oligosaccharides CSC, and on the cross-linked CSC scaffolds all would be induced into chondrocytes. Moreover, free oligosaccharide CSC present in the microenvironment could significantly up-regulate MSC chondrogenesis gene expression and stimulate cartilage ECM accumulation more than free CSC with high molecular weight after 3-week induction. Importantly, cross-linked CSC had the most excellent effects on the MSC chondrogenesis. Thus, we believed that cross-linked CSC in the scaffold would play the similar roles with free oligosaccharide CSC in the medium. Cross-linked CSC would be a potential candidate for cartilage repair in the cell therapy and tissue engineering.
Journal: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 226–231