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Enzymatic routes for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
22993 43409 2014 11 PDF Available
Title
Enzymatic routes for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid
Abstract

•Ursodeoxycholic acid is a drug for the treatment of liver diseases.•Different starting material for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid are presented.•Appropriate enzymes for biotransformation reactions are presented.•Several routes for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid are presented and discussed.•The current status and limitations synthesizing ursodeoxycholic acid are discussed.

Ursodeoxycholic acid, a secondary bile acid, is used as a drug for the treatment of various liver diseases, the optimal dose comprises the range of 8–10 mg/kg/day. For industrial syntheses, the structural complexity of this bile acid requires the use of an appropriate starting material as well as the application of regio- and enantio-selective enzymes for its derivatization. Most strategies for the synthesis start from cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid. The latter requires the conversion of the hydroxyl group at C-7 from α- into β-position in order to obtain ursodeoxycholic acid. Cholic acid on the other hand does not only require the same epimerization reaction at C-7 but the removal of the hydroxyl group at C-12 as well. There are several bacterial regio- and enantio-selective hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDHs) to carry out the desired reactions, for example 7α-HSDHs from strains of Clostridium, Bacteroides or Xanthomonas, 7β-HSDHs from Clostridium, Collinsella, or Ruminococcus, or 12α-HSDH from Clostridium or from Eggerthella. However, all these bioconversion reactions need additional steps for the regeneration of the coenzymes. Selected multi-step reaction systems for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid are presented in this review.

Keywords
Ursodeoxycholic acid; Cholic acid; Chenodeoxycholic acid; Bile acids; Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Journal of Biotechnology - Volume 191, 10 December 2014, Pages 11–21
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
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Price was $35.95
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