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Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
23 4 2016 9 PDF Available
Title
Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior
Abstract

Although stiffness-controllable substrates have been developed to investigate the effect of stiffness on cell behavior and function, the use of separate substrates with different degrees of stiffness, substrates with a narrow range stiffness gradient, toxicity of residues, different surface composition, complex fabrication procedures/devices, and low cell adhesion are still considered as hurdles of conventional techniques. In this study, a cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel with a wide-range stiffness gradient (between ∼20 kPa and ∼200 kPa) and cell adhesiveness was prepared by a liquid nitrogen (LN2)-contacting gradual freezing–thawing method that does not use any additives or specific devices to produce the stiffness gradient hydrogel. From an in vitro cell culture using the stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel, it was observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have favorable stiffness ranges for induction of differentiation into specific cell types (∼20 kPa for nerve cell, ∼40 kPa for muscle cell, ∼80 kPa for chondrocyte, and ∼190 kPa for osteoblast). The PVA/HA hydrogel with a wide range of stiffness spectrum can be a useful tool for basic studies related with the stem cell differentiation, cell reprogramming, cell migration, and tissue regeneration in terms of substrate stiffness.Statement of SignificanceIt is postulated that the stiffness of the extracellular matrix influences cell behavior. To prove this concept, various techniques to prepare substrates with a stiffness gradient have been developed. However, the narrow ranges of stiffness gradient and complex fabrication procedures/devices are still remained as limitations. Herein, we develop a substrate (hydrogel) with a wide-range stiffness gradient using a gradual freezing–thawing method which does not need specific devices to produce a stiffness gradient hydrogel. From cell culture experiments using the hydrogel, it is observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have favorable stiffness ranges for induction of differentiation into specific cell types (∼20 kPa for nerve, ∼40 kPa for muscle, ∼80 kPa for cartilage, and ∼190 kPa for bone in our hydrogel system).

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Keywords
Stiffness gradient; Polyvinyl alcohol; Hyaluronic acid; Stem cell; Differentiation
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Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 35, 15 April 2016, Pages 23–31
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us