Immobilized enzymes to convert N-sulfo, N-acetyl heparosan to a critical intermediate in the production of bioengineered heparin ☆
•Immobilized three enzymes required for chemoenzymatic synthesis.•Facilitated PAPS cofactor recycling using immobilized enzyme.•Simultaneously, epimerize, sulfonate and regenerate cofactors.•Optimized enzymatic step in the synthesis of bioengineered heparin.•Produced critical intermediate for bioengineered heparin.
Heparin is a critically important anticoagulant drug that is prepared from pig intestine. In 2007–2008, there was a crisis in the heparin market when the raw material was adulterated with the toxic polysaccharide, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, which was associated with 100 deaths in the U.S. alone. As the result of this crisis, our laboratory and others have been actively pursuing alternative sources for this critical drug, including synthetic heparins and bioengineered heparin. In assessing the bioengineering processing costs it has become clear that the use of both enzyme-catalyzed cofactor recycling and enzyme immobilization will be needed for commercialization. In the current study, we examine the use of immobilization of C5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase involved in the first enzymatic step in the bioengineered heparin process, as well as arylsulfotransferase-IV involved in cofactor recycling in all three enzymatic steps. We report the successful immobilization of all three enzymes and their use in converting N-sulfo, N-acetyl heparosan into N-sulfo, N-acetyl 2-O-sulfo heparin.
Journal: Journal of Biotechnology - Volume 167, Issue 3, 10 September 2013, Pages 241–247