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‘Life-style’ control networks in Escherichia coli: Signaling by the second messenger c-di-GMP

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
23533 43449 2012 7 PDF Available
Title
‘Life-style’ control networks in Escherichia coli: Signaling by the second messenger c-di-GMP
Abstract

Most bacteria can exist in either a planktonic-motile single-cell state or an adhesive multicellular state known as a biofilm. Biofilms cause medical problems and technical damage since they are resistant against antibiotics, disinfectants or the attacks of the immune system. In recent years it has become clear that most bacteria use cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) as a biofilm-promoting second messenger molecule. C-di-GMP is produced by GGDEF-domain-containing diguanylate cyclases and is degraded by phosphodiesterases featuring EAL or HD-GYP domains. Many bacterial species possess multiple proteins with GGDEF and EAL domains, which actually belong to the most abundant protein families in genomic data bases. Via an unprecedented variety of effector components, which include c-di-GMP-binding proteins as well as RNAs, c-di-GMP controls a wide range of targets that down-regulate motility, stimulate adhesin and biofilm matrix formation or even control virulence gene expression. Moreover, local c-di-GMP signaling in macromolecular complexes seems to allow the independent and parallel control of different output reactions. In this review, we use Escherichia coli as a paradigm for c-di-GMP signaling. Despite the huge diversity of components and molecular processes involved in biofilm formation throughout the bacterial kingdom, c-di-GMP signaling represents a unifying principle, which suggests that the enzymes that make and break c-di-GMP may be promising targets for anti-biofilm drugs.

► Key role of the novel second messenger c-di-GMP in Escherichia coli biofilm formation. ► C-di-GMP binds to an unprecedented diversity of effectors including proteins as well as riboswitches. ► C-di-GMP controls a huge diversity of cellular targets. ► Local second messenger signaling by c-di-GMP. ► C-di-GMP-controlling enzymes (GGDEF/EAL domain proteins) as targets for novel anti-biofilm drugs.

Keywords
Biofilm; Cyclic-di-GMP; GGDEF domain; EAL domain; Motility; RpoS
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‘Life-style’ control networks in Escherichia coli: Signaling by the second messenger c-di-GMP
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Journal of Biotechnology - Volume 160, Issues 1–2, 31 July 2012, Pages 10–16
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us