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Microbial nitrate respiration – Genes, enzymes and environmental distribution

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
23755 43470 2011 14 PDF Available
Title
Microbial nitrate respiration – Genes, enzymes and environmental distribution
Abstract

Nitrate is a key node in the network of the assimilatory and respiratory nitrogen pathways. As one of the ‘fixed’ forms of nitrogen, nitrate plays an essential role in both nature and industry. For bacteria, it is both a nitrogen source and an electron acceptor. In agriculture and wastewater treatment, nitrate respiration by microorganisms is an important issue with respect to economics, greenhouse gas emission and public health. Several microbial processes compete for nitrate: denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In this review we provide an up to date overview of the organisms, genes and enzymes involved in nitrate respiration. We also address the molecular detection of these processes in nature. We show that despite rapid progress in the experimental and genomic analyses of pure cultures, knowledge on the mechanism of nitrate reduction in natural ecosystems is still largely lacking.

Keywords
Nitrogen cycle; Nitrate respiration; Denitrification; Anammox; DNRA
First Page Preview
Microbial nitrate respiration – Genes, enzymes and environmental distribution
Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Journal of Biotechnology - Volume 155, Issue 1, 20 August 2011, Pages 104–117
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering