Controlled polymerization chemistry to graft architectures that influence cell-material interactions
Acrylate monomers were photografted from polymer substrates to create cell responsive chemically and biologically active surfaces that manipulate cell response. Three monomers, polyethylene glycol monoacrylate (MW 375 g/mol) (PEG375A), a monomeric extra-cellular matrix protein, and a cell-cleavable fluorescent monomer, were spatially photopatterned from a base substrate. The base substrate consisted of a dithiocarbamate (DTC) functionalized urethane diacrylate/tri(ethylene glycol)diacrylate copolymer and was shown to non-specifically support NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. The DTC-containing polymer was further modified by grafting PEG375A to demonstrate selective blocking of cell-material interactions. Next, acrylated collagen type I was patterned onto polymer substrates to further promote specific cell interactions (i.e. by presenting cell-adhesive moieties). Hydrophilic PEG375A grafted patterns were shown to prevent 3T3 fibroblast adhesion to polymer in spatially grafted regions, while biologically active acrylated collagen type I promoted cell-surface interactions. Collagen type I was grafted at varying densities (0–7.5 pmol/grafted square), and the extent of cell adhesion and spreading were evaluated for each of these graft densities using fluorescence microscopy. Finally, methacrylated carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) was synthesized and photografted onto a cell-adhesive substrate as a cell sensing mechanism. The acetate groups found in the structure of CFDA cleave in the presence of cells. This cell-responsive substrate results in fluorescence indicative of acetate-group cleavage associated with cell interactions that occurs in patterned regions on polymer surfaces. Collectively, the results herein show the utility and application of a spatially and temporally controlled photografting process for designing cell responsive polymer surfaces.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 151–161