Biochemical profiling in silico—Predicting substrate specificities of large enzyme families
A general high-throughput method for in silico biochemical profiling of enzyme families has been developed based on covalent docking of potential substrates into the binding sites of target enzymes. The method has been tested by systematically docking transition state—analogous intermediates of 12 substrates into the binding sites of 20 α/β hydrolases from 15 homologous families. To evaluate the effect of side chain orientations to the docking results, 137 crystal structures were included in the analysis. A good substrate must fulfil two criteria: it must bind in a productive geometry with four hydrogen bonds between the substrate and the catalytic histidine and the oxyanion hole, and a high affinity of the enzyme–substrate complex as predicted by a high docking score.The modelling results in general reproduce experimental data on substrate specificity and stereoselectivity: the differences in substrate specificity of cholinesterases toward acetyl- and butyrylcholine, the changes of activity of lipases and esterases upon the size of the acid moieties, activity of lipases and esterases toward tertiary alcohols, and the stereopreference of lipases and esterases toward chiral secondary alcohols. Rigidity of the docking procedure was the major reason for false positive and false negative predictions, as the geometry of the complex and docking score may sensitively depend on the orientation of individual side chains. Therefore, appropriate structures have to be identified. In silico biochemical profiling provides a time efficient and cost saving protocol for virtual screening to identify the potential substrates of the members of large enzyme family from a library of molecules.
Journal: Journal of Biotechnology - Volume 124, Issue 1, 25 June 2006, Pages 108–116