Surface characterisation of various bone cements prepared with functionalised methacrylates/bioactive ceramics in relation to HOB behaviour
This study reports the relationship between the biocompatibility and surface properties of experimental bone cements. The effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) or α-tri-calcium phosphate (α-TCP) incorporated into bone cements prepared with methyl methacrylate as base monomer and either methacrylic acid or diethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) as comonomers was investigated. The in vitro biocompatibility of these composite cements was assessed in terms of the interaction of primary human osteoblasts grown on the materials over a period of 5 days and compared with a control surface. These results were related to the surface properties investigated through a number of techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared, contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. Complementary techniques of thermal analysis and ion chromatography were also performed. Biocompatibility results showed that the addition of α-TCP improves biocompatibility regardless of comonomer type. This is in contrast to HA-based cements where cell proliferation was significantly lower. Surface characterisations showed that structural integrity of the materials was maintained in the presence of the acid and base comonomers, and water contact angles were reduced particularly in DEAEMA containing materials. Furthermore, ion chromatography confirmed higher Ca2+ and PO43- ion release by both types of ceramics, particularly for those containing DEAEMA. In conclusion, the incorporation of acidic and basic comonomers to either HA or α-TCP ceramics containing bone cements can have differential effects upon the attachment and proliferation of bone cells in vitro. Moreover, those cements consisting of α-TCP and containing DEAEMA comonomer indicated the most favourable biocompatibility.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 143–154