Transformation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by H2O2/UV-C, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Oxidation products and toxicity evolution
In the present study, H2O2/UV-C, Fenton and photo-Fenton treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol was compared in terms of oxidation products and acute toxicity. The oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography, whereas changes in acute toxicity were evaluated by the Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition assay. H2O2/UV-C and photo-Fenton processes ensured complete 2,4-dichlorophenolremoval, detoxification and significant mineralization. Hydroquinone and formic acid were identified as the common oxidation products of the studied advanced oxidation processes investigated. 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone were identified as the additional H2O2/UV-C oxidation products of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Acute toxicity decreased with decreasing 2,4-dichlorophenol and increasing chloride release.
► Advanced oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol was investigated. ► Complete detoxification and mineralization could be achieved by thephotochemical processes. ► Several chlorinated and nonchlorinated oxidation intermediates were identified. ► Hydroquinone and formic acid were the common oxidation products. ► An inverse relationship was evident for toxicity and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry - Volume 230, Issue 1, 15 February 2012, Pages 65–73