Photoredox reactions of Cr(III) mixed-ligand complexes
Irradiation of chromium(III) complexes with oxalate and pyridinedicarboxylate ligands (pda = 2,3-, 2,4-, or 2,5-dicarboxylate) leads to diverse behaviors, dictated by light energy, presence of oxygen and the ligand nature. Irradiation within the MC bands is unaffected by O2 and results in ligand substitution. The LMCT excitation is effective only when oxalate is coordinated to Cr(III); then electron transfer from oxalate to central ion generates an intermediate, consisted of a Cr(II)species and the C2O4− radicals. The species undergo fast redox reactions dependent on the presence of O2 and the pda ligand.(1) In anoxic medium the fast outersphere electron transfer from Cr(II) to solvent, generates hydrated electrons and re-oxidizes the chromium centre to CrIII. Then geminate recombination regenerates substrate, whereas competitive release of the C2O4− radical leads to substitution of one oxalate ligand by two water molecules (aquation induced by the LMCT excitation). In the presence of the pda ligand the outersphere electron transfer is accompanied by the innersphere CT, generating Cr(III) coordinated to two radical ligands: C2O4− and pda3−; the intermediate releases also eaq−, but this reaction is slower than that of the homoleptic oxalate complex. Hydrated electrons are scavenged also by the released radicals. All these processes are completed within microseconds and in consequence, the Cr(III) complexes irradiated in deoxygenated solutions are insensitive to subsequent oxygenation.(2) When UV-irradiation is carried out in oxygenated medium reaction of Cr(II) species with molecular oxygen competes with the outer- or inner electron transfer observed in anoxic medium. Both these pathways result in generation of chromate(VI). Quantum yield of the Cr(VI) production is sensitive to the presence and structure of pda ligand, decreasing within the series 2,3-pda > 2,4-pda > 2,5-pda.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry - Volume 209, Issues 2–3, 25 January 2010, Pages 121–127