Single-wall carbon nanotubes modified with organic dyes: Synthesis, characterization and potential cytotoxic effects
This work deals with the covalent functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with phenosafranine (PS) and Nile Blue (NB) dyes. These dyes can act as photosensitizers in energy and electron transfer reactions, with a potential to be applied in photodynamic therapy. Several changes in the characteristic Raman vibrational features of the dyes suggest that a covalent modification of the nanotubes with the organic dyes occurs. Specifically, the vibrational modes assigned to the NH2 moieties of the dyes are seen to disappear in the SWNT–dye nanocomposites, corroborating the bond formation between amine groups in the dyes and carboxyl groups in the oxidized nanotubes. The X-ray absorption (XANES) data also show, that the intense band at 398.6 eV attributed to 1s → 2pπ* transition of the nitrogen of the aromatic PS ring, is shifted due to the bonding with the carbonic structure of the SWNTs. The cytotoxicity data of dyes-modified SWNT composites in the presence and absence of light shows that the SWNT–NB (4 μg/mL) composite presents a good photodynamic effect, namely a low toxicity in the dark, higher toxicity in the presence of light and also a reduced dye photobleaching by auto-oxidation.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry - Volume 211, Issues 2–3, 15 April 2010, Pages 99–107