Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin on E. coli DNA damage
The micronutrients in many cellular processes, riboflavin (vitamin B2), FMN, and FAD are photo-sensitive to UV and visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The riboflavin photochemical treatment with UV light has been applied for the inactivation of microorganisms to serve as an effective and safe technology. Ultra-violet or high-intensity radiation is, however, considered as a highly risky practice. This study was working on the application of visible LED lights to riboflavin photochemical reactions to development an effective antimicrobial treatment. The photosensitization of bacterial genome with riboflavin was investigated in vitro and in vivo by light quality and irradiation dosage. The riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue LED light was proved to be able to inactivate E. coli by damaging nucleic acids with ROS generated. Riboflavin is capable of intercalating between the bases of bacterial DNA or RNA and absorbs lights in the visible regions. LED light illumination could be a more accessible and safe practice for riboflavin photochemical treatments to achieve hygienic requirements in vitro.
Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Application of visible LED lights to riboflavin photochemical reactions to development an antimicrobial method. ► The riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue LED light is able to inactivate Escherichia coli. ► Nucleic acids of E. coli are damaged with ROS generated after illumination by blue LED light. ► LED light illumination could be practical to riboflavin photochemical treatments for hygienic requirements in vitro.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 119, 5 February 2013, Pages 60–64