Photochemical and phototoxic properties of ethyl 1,4-dihydro-8-nitro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate, a new quinoline derivative
The present study demonstrates photoinduced generation of superoxide radical anion and singlet oxygen upon UVA irradiation of ethyl 1,4-dihydro-8-nitro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate (DNQC), and its cytotoxic/phototoxic effects on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by EPR spectroscopy using in situ spin trapping technique and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-piperidine (TMP) for singlet oxygen (1O2) detection. The EPR spectra monitored upon photoexcitation of aerated solutions of DNQC in dimethylsulfoxide evidenced the efficient activation of molecular oxygen via Types I and II mechanisms. The cytotoxic/phototoxic effects of DNQC, analysis of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis/necrosis, DNA damage and molecular mechanism of apoptotic death of L1210 cells in dark and in the presence of UVA irradiation were compared. DNQC induced a different cytotoxic/phototoxic effect, which was concentration- and time-dependent. The four highest tested concentrations of non-photoactivated and photoactivated DNQC induced immediate cytotoxic/phototoxic effect after 24 h cultivation of L1210 cells. This effect decreased with the time of treatment. The irradiation increased the sensitivity of leukemia cell line on DNQC, but the cell sensitivity decreased with time of processing. Quinolone derivative DNQC significantly induced direct DNA strand breaks in L1210 cells, which were increased with the irradiation of cells. The DNA damage generated by DNQC alone/with combination of UVA irradiation induced cell arrest in G0/G1 and G2/M phases, decrease in the number of L1210 cells in S phase and apoptotic cell death of certain part of cell population after 24 h of influence. DNQC alone/with combination of UVA irradiation induced apoptosis in L1210 cells through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 102, Issue 1, 10 January 2011, Pages 77–91