Drug delivery strategies for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy: From benchtop to clinical practice
Light and photosensitizer-mediated killing of many pathogens, termed photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), has been extensively investigated in vitro. A wide range of organisms from the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus to the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been proven to be susceptible to PACT. Multidrug-resistant strains are just as susceptible to this treatment as their naïve counterparts. Both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses have demonstrated susceptibility in vitro, in addition to fungi and protozoa. Significantly, however, no clinical treatments based on PACT are currently licensed. This paper provides a comprehensive review of work carried out to date on delivery of photosensitizers for use in PACT, including topical, intranasal and oral/buccal delivery, as well as targeted delivery. We have also reviewed photo-antimicrobial surfaces. It is hoped that, through a rational approach to formulation design and subsequent success in small-scale clinical trials, more widespread use will be made of PACT in the clinic, to the benefit of patients worldwide.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 95, Issue 2, 4 May 2009, Pages 71–80