Metformin associated with photodynamic therapy – A novel oncological direction
•MDA enhanced in the groups treated with combined therapy in correlation with an increase of GSH.•Metf and TSPP–PDT reduced iNOS expression and NO levels and also enhanced nitrotyrosine generation.•Peroxynitrate formation was related to an elevated index of apoptosis in the last two groups.•MMP-2 activity reached a minimum in the groups which received combined therapy.•Metf associated with TSPP–PDT reduced COX-2 expression in both therapeutic regimens.
The aim of our study was to assess the effect of the combined treatment of Metformin (Metf) and 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra-sulfophenyl-porphyrin (TSPP)–mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on an in vivo tumour model. Wistar male rats were divided in 6 groups: group 1, treated with TSPP; groups 2 and 4 treated with TSPP and Metf, respectively, and irradiated 24 h thereafter; group 3 was treated with Metf and the last two groups received the combined treatment, Metf administered prior (group 5) or after (group 6) irradiation. 72 h from the start of the treatment, tumour tissue was sampled for the investigation of oxidative and nitrosative stress. The apoptotic rate, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions and matrix metalloproteinases activities were also quantified. Malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were significantly elevated in the groups treated with combined therapy (p < 0.05). Metf associated with TSPP–PDT reduced iNOS and COX-2 expressions and enhanced nitrotyrosine levels in both therapeutic regimens. Peroxynitrate formation and its cytotoxic effect on tumour cells were related to an elevated index of apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, MMP-2 activity reached a minimum in the groups which received combined therapy. Our results confirmed that the association of Metf with PDT might prove a new and promising oncological approach.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 138, 5 September 2014, Pages 80–91