In vitro photodynamic activity of chloro(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato)indium(III) loaded-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in LNCaP prostate tumour cells
In(III)-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (InTPP) was encapsulated into nanoparticles (smaller than 200 nm) of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) using the emulsification–evaporation technique. The photodynamic efficacy of InTPP-loaded nanoparticles and its cellular uptake was investigated with LNCaP prostate tumour cells, in comparison with the free InTPP. The effects of incubation time (1–3 h), drug concentration (1.8–7.7 μmol/L) and incident light dose (15–45 J/cm2) with both encapsulated and free InTPP were studied. The type of cell death induced by the photochemical process using both encapsulated and free InTPP was also investigated. Cell viability was reduced more significantly with increasing values of these effects for InTPP-loaded nanoparticles than with the free drug. The cellular death induced by both encapsulated and free InTPP was preponderantly apoptotic. Confocal laser scanning microscopy data showed that the InTPP-loaded nanoparticles, as well free InTPP, were localized in the cells, and always in the perinuclear region. Encapsulated InTPP was measured by the intensity of fluorescence intensity of cell extracts and was three times more internalized into the cells than was the free InTPP. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments corroborated the participation of singlet oxygen in the photocytotoxic effect of nanoparticles loaded with InTPP.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 94, Issue 2, 9 February 2009, Pages 101–112