Subcellular localization pattern of protoporphyrin IX is an important determinant for its photodynamic efficiency of human carcinoma and normal cell lines
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a combination of light with a lesion-localizing photosensitizer or its precursor to destroy the lesion tissue. PDT has recently become an established modality for several malignant and non-malignant conditions, but it can be further improved through a better understanding of the determinants affecting its therapeutic efficiency. In the present investigation, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an efficient photosensitizer either endogenously induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or exogenously administered, was used to correlate its subcellular localization pattern with photodynamic efficiency of human oesophageal carcinoma (KYSE-450, KYSE-70) and normal (Het-1A) cell lines. By means of fluorescence microscopy ALA-induced PpIX was initially localized in the mitochondria, whereas exogenous PpIX was mainly distributed in cell membranes. At a similar amount of cellular PpIX PDT with ALA was significantly more efficient than photodynamic treatment with exogenous PpIX at killing all the 3 cell lines. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP content, and electron microscopy showed that the mitochondria were initially targeted by ALA-PDT, consistent with intracellular localization pattern of ALA-induced endogenous PpIX. This indicates that subcellular localization pattern of PpIX is an important determinant for its PDT efficiency in the 3 cell lines. Our finding suggests that future new photosensitizers with mitochondrially localizing properties may be designed for effective PDT.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 84, Issue 3, 1 September 2006, Pages 213–220