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Genotoxicity of visible light (400–800 nm) and photoprotection assessment of ectoin, l-ergothioneine and mannitol and four sunscreens

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
31143 44554 2008 11 PDF Available
Title
Genotoxicity of visible light (400–800 nm) and photoprotection assessment of ectoin, l-ergothioneine and mannitol and four sunscreens
Abstract

This study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects of visible (400–800 nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA)/visible (315–800 nm) lights on human keratinocytes and CHO cells. The alkaline comet assay was used to quantify DNA-damage. In addition, photo-dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed in CHO cells by the micronucleus test. Three protective compounds [ectoin, l-ergothioneine (ERT) and mannitol] were tested with the comet assay for their effectiveness to reduce DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). Finally, the genomic photoprotections of two broad-band sunscreens and their tinted analogues were assessed by the comet assay. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay revealed a decrease of the keratinocyte viability of 30% and 13% for the highest UVA/visible and visible irradiations (15 and 13.8 J/cm2, respectively). Visible as well as UVA/visible lights induced DNA SSB and micronuclei, in a dose-dependent manner. The level of DNA breakage induced by visible light was 50% of the one generated by UVA/visible irradiation. However, UVA radiations were 10 times more effective than visible radiations to produce SSB. The DNA lesions induced by visible and UVA/visible lights were reduced after a 1-h preincubation period with the three tested compounds. The maximal protective effects were 92.7%, 97.9% and 52.0% for ectoin (0.1 mM), ERT (0.5 mM) and mannitol (1.5 mM), respectively, against visible light and 68.9%, 59.8% and 62.7% for ectoin (0.1 mM), ERT (0.5 mM) and mannitol (1.5 mM), respectively, against UVA/visible light. Thus, visible light was genotoxic on human keratinocytes and CHO cells through oxidative stress mechanisms similar to the ones induced by UVA radiations. The four tested sunscreens efficiently prevented DNA lesions that were induced by both visible and UVA/visible irradiations. The tinted sunscreens were slightly more effective that their colorless analogues. There is a need to complement sunscreen formulations with additional molecules to obtain a complete internal and external photoprotection against both UVA and visible lights.

Keywords
Visible light; Comet assay; Oxidative damage; In vitro micronucleus; Protective compounds; Sunscreens
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Genotoxicity of visible light (400–800 nm) and photoprotection assessment of ectoin, l-ergothioneine and mannitol and four sunscreens
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 91, Issue 1, 25 April 2008, Pages 24–34
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us