Two-photon photodynamic therapy of C6 cells by means of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received increased attention as a treatment modality for malignant tumors as well as non-oncologic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). An alternative to excite the photosensitizer by the common one-photon absorption is the method of two-photon excitation (TPE). This two-photon photodynamic therapy has the potential of improving the therapeutic outcome due to a highly localized photodynamic effect. The present study investigated the two-photon excited PDT performing in vitro experiments where C6 rat glioma cells were irradiated with a pulsed and focused fs Ti:sapphire laser emitting light at 800 nm. The irradiance distribution of the laser beam was carefully analyzed before the experiment and the applied irradiance was known for each position within the irradiated cell layer. Cells were divided into four groups and one group was incubated with 5-ALA and irradiated 4–5 h later. The survival of this group was tested after irradiation by means of ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and compared to a control group, which was irradiated under the same conditions, but not incubated with 5-ALA before. Both groups showed necrotic areas depending on the applied irradiance, the value of which at the margin of the necrotic area could be deduced from its size. 5-ALA incubated cells became necrotic after irradiation with a mean irradiance above 6.1 × 1010 W/cm2, while non-incubated cells remained viable. Cells of both groups became necrotic when treated with an irradiance above 10.9 × 1010 W/cm2. The observed affected area of the cell layers was between 0.13 mm2 and 1.10 mm2. Since the irradiation of non-incubated cells below the mean power density of 10.9 × 1010 W/cm2 induced no necrosis, apparently no thermal damage was induced in the cells and necrosis of the 5-ALA incubated cells can be ascribed to the photodynamic effect induced by two-photon excitation. The successful photodynamic treatment of a large area of a monolayer cell culture induced by two-photon excitation offers new perspectives for photodynamic treatment modalities.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Volume 87, Issue 3, 26 June 2007, Pages 174–182