Surface modification of TiO2 photocatalyst for environmental applications
This paper reviews recent studies on the semiconductor photocatalysis based on surface-modified TiO2 of which application is mainly focused on environmental remediation. TiO2 photocatalysis that is based on the photoinduced interfacial charge transfer has been extensively studied over the past four decades. A great number of modification methods of semiconductor photocatalysts have been developed and investigated to accelerate the photoconversion, to enable the absorption of visible light, or to alter the reaction mechanism to control the products and intermediates. In this regard, various modification methods of TiO2 are classified according to the kind of surface modifiers (metal-loading, impurity doping, inorganic adsorbates, polymer coating, dye-sensitization, charge transfer complexation) and their effects on photocatalytic reaction mechanism and kinetics are discussed in detail. Modifying TiO2 in various ways not only changes the mechanism and kinetics under UV irradiation but also introduces visible light activity that is absent with pure TiO2. Each modification method influences the photocatalytic activity and mechanism in a way different from others and the observed modification effects are often different depending on the test substrates and conditions even for the same modification method. Better understanding of the modification effects on TiO2 photocatalysis is necessary to obtain reliable results, to assess the photoconversion efficiency more quantitatively, and to further improve the modification methods.
► This paper reviews studies on TiO2 photocatalyst for environmental application. ► Various modification methods and their effects are discussed in detail. ► Better understanding of the modification effects is necessary for reliable results. ► Assessing the photoconversion efficiency more quantitatively is necessary.
Journal: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews - Volume 15, June 2013, Pages 1–20