In vitro metabolic engineering for the salvage synthesis of NAD+
•In vitro salvage synthesis of NAD+ from its thermal degradants was achieved.•The in vitro synthetic pathway was constructed using eight thermophilic enzymes.•NAD+ concentration was kept constant at 60 °C for 15 h through the in vitro pathway.
Excellent thermal and operational stabilities of thermophilic enzymes can greatly increase the applicability of biocatalysis in various industrial fields. However, thermophilic enzymes are generally incompatible with thermo-labile substrates, products, and cofactors, since they show the maximal activities at high temperatures. Despite their pivotal roles in a wide range of enzymatic redox reactions, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H exhibit relatively low stabilities at high temperatures, tending to be a major obstacle in the long-term operation of biocatalytic chemical manufacturing with thermophilic enzymes. In this study, we constructed an in vitro artificial metabolic pathway for the salvage synthesis of NAD+ from its degradation products by the combination of eight thermophilic enzymes. The enzymes were heterologously produced in recombinant Escherichia coli and the heat-treated crude extracts of the recombinant cells were directly used as enzyme solutions. When incubated with experimentally optimized concentrations of the enzymes at 60 °C, the NAD+ concentration could be kept almost constant for 15 h.
Journal: Metabolic Engineering - Volume 35, May 2016, Pages 114–120