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Four-dimensional electron microscopy: Ultrafast imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy in materials science and biology

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
32048 44892 2016 22 PDF Available
Title
Four-dimensional electron microscopy: Ultrafast imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy in materials science and biology
Abstract

•Development of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy and its applications.•Visualization of dynamics in nano-materials science.•Biodynamics and nanomechanics of proteins and DNA.

SummaryUnderstanding the ultrafast evolution of atomic and electronic rearrangements under nonequilibrium conditions in organic, inorganic and biological materials plays a fundamental role in deciphering the mechanism governing chemical and biological functions. With direct visualization, the technological development of future innovative devices on the nanoscale becomes feasible.Although an enormous effort has been devoted to the comprehension and improvement of these materials and devices, the capability of investigating their dynamic behavior is hindered by the difficulty of simultaneously studying their evolution in space and time at the appropriate scales. The traditional characterization techniques and the steady-state theoretical models are both not adequate for describing their nonequilibrium behavior. Instead, a novel approach for visualization of matter with high temporal and spatial resolutions, together with energy and momentum selection, is indispensable to fully exploit their potential.Four-dimensional electron microscopy (4D-EM) has been developed with the capability of performing time-resolved imaging, diffraction and electron-spectroscopy. The acquired and sufficient spatial, temporal, energy and momentum resolution, provide the real-time access to the dynamic behavior of surfaces, interfaces and nanosystems.In this review, after outlining the 4D-EM approach, which enables sub-nanometer spatial resolution and temporal speed of 10 orders of magnitude faster than previously possible, we address several recent applications in materials science and biology, highlighting for each case the challenges that had to be overcome, the main scientific contributions, and future trends in the field. The highly inter- and multi-disciplinary approach presented here will pave the way for an unprecedented insight into the nonequilibrium phenomena of advanced materials, and should play a decisive role in the rational design and engineering of future applications.

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Keywords
Electron microscopy; Electron diffraction; Electron energy loss spectroscopy; Ultrafast phenomena; Materials science; Biology
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Four-dimensional electron microscopy: Ultrafast imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy in materials science and biology
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: - Volume 11, Issue 2, April 2016, Pages 228–249
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us