Make it nano-Keep it nano
•Fundamental guidelines for amphiphilic stabilizers of nanoparticles are developed.•The hydrophobization of core-shell type, mixed metal, and shape-anisotropic nanoparticles is presented.•The importance of the adsorption process kinetics is shown.•One-pot procedures for surface–tuning NPs based on emulsion, laser ablation or latent solvent mixtures are given.•The stabilization of inorganic and organic nanoparticles are compared.
SummaryNanoscience often focuses on the formation of nanoparticles without paying enough attention to their further manipulation. One of the fundamental issues concerning nanoparticles upon processing and utilization is overcoming the problem of aggregation. Special methods are therefore required to keep them as individual, isolated objects. Especially for inorganic particles, we demonstrate practical methods herein for nanoparticle functionalization, stabilization, and transfer between media of different polarities. The homogeneous incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles into matrix polymers to yield nanocomposites is a primary concern. In all cases, amphiphiles appear to play a decisive role in avoiding aggregation. We therefore compare block copolymers, statistical copolymers and low molecular weight surfactants to derive practical guidelines regarding the efficient stabilization of nanoparticles. Inorganic nanoparticles stand in the foreground but many comparisons to their organic analogues can be applied.
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Journal: - Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages 417–438