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Surface ligands in synthesis, modification, assembly and biomedical applications of nanoparticles

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
32234 44913 2014 21 PDF Available
Title
Surface ligands in synthesis, modification, assembly and biomedical applications of nanoparticles
Abstract

•Chemical aspects of the ligands design for nanomaterial synthesis and assembly.•The effect of surface ligands on physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials.•The effect of ligands on nano–bio interface.•The role of surface ligands on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and multifunctionality of nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

SummaryNanotechnology has received extraordinary attention recently due to its burgeoning role in biomedical science. The materials composing the nanoparticles produce fascinating and diverse functionalities as a result of their exceptionally small size. In fact, even seemingly insignificant changes in particle size can have profound effects on these properties. Thus size control, both during synthesis and in particle suspensions, is a sine qua non for functionality. This can be accomplished by masking the particle surface with a multitude of different ligands. Not only can surface ligands constrain the growth of nucleation, they can also direct the shape of crystallization. However no single ligand can do everything. Fortunately ligands are essentially fungible and can be exchanged at various times to confer the desired properties to the particle. This can include protecting the particle from harsh aqueous conditions, such as pH extremes, maximizing optical properties for diagnostics or shielding the particle from potentially hostile conditions found in the body. Because these moieties interact ubiquitously with various biological materials, particularly proteins, there needs to be a rationalized design of surface ligands. The design of the ligand can have crucial effects on biodistribution as well as evasion of biological defenses. Ligands can even be designed to provide new functionality in response to various environmental stimuli to improve their therapeutic or diagnostic capabilities. Considering the importance of ligands then on this emerging field, this review will thoroughly consider the ligand design for the various steps of nanodevelopment, from synthesis and assembly through biomedical translation.

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Keywords
Ligand; Nanoparticle; Assembly; Surface modification; Nanomedicine
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Surface ligands in synthesis, modification, assembly and biomedical applications of nanoparticles
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: - Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2014, Pages 457–477
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us