Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel
•Hydrocarbon fuels produced from non-edible sunflower oils were targeted.•Effects of the reaction temperatures on oil yield and properties were evaluated.•Distillation was used to obtain a higher hydrocarbon content.•The mechanism of producing light hydrocarbons, CO, CO2 and H2 was discussed.
Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved.
Journal: New Biotechnology - Volume 32, Issue 2, 25 March 2015, Pages 300–312