The effect of the symbiosis between Tagetes erecta L. (marigold) and Glomus intraradices in the uptake of Copper(II) and its implications for phytoremediation
Phytoremediation is an environmental biotechnology that seeks to remediate pollution caused by bioaccumulative toxins like copper (Cu). Symbiotic mycorrhizal associations can increase the uptake and delivery of low mobility nutrients and micronutrients to the host plant because they solubilize these substances and increase their catchment area. To analyze the effect of mycorrhizae on the phytoaccumulation of Cu, we studied their ability to solubilize Cu(II) and enhance its absorption by the plant Tagetes erecta L. colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Plants were grown for nine weeks in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. Cu was added in the insoluble form of CuO to simulate the insoluble Cu–O affixed species in soil. The biotic and abiotic parameters of colonization, foliar area, biomass and the pH of leachates were determined as functions of the Cu concentration that was measured in the roots, shoots and leachates by AAS. The results of Cu absorption showed that the colonized plants accumulated more Cu in the roots as well as the whole plant and that both the colonized and non-colonized plants displayed the typical behavior of Cu excluders. Mycorrhizal colonization of the roots resulted in a proliferation of vesicles and this was observed to scale with root tissue Cu concentrations. Also, the G. intraradices–T. erecta system displayed a higher resistance to the toxicity induced by Cu while nonetheless improving the indices of phytoaccumulative yields. These results suggest that G. intraradices possibly accumulates Cu in its vesicles thereby enhancing the Cu tolerance of T. erecta even while increasing root Cu accumulation. The parameters of bioconcentration factor and translocation factor measured in this work suggest that the system T. erecta–G. intraradices can potentially phytostabilize Cu in contaminated soils.
Journal: New Biotechnology - Volume 29, Issue 1, 15 December 2011, Pages 156–164