In vitro and in vivo ACE inhibitory of pistachio hydrolysates and in silico mechanism of identified peptide binding with ACE
•Pistachio kernel hydrolysates exhibited anti-hypertensive effects in vivo.•ACE inhibitory peptide was purified from hydrolysate.•ACKEP with IC50 of 126 μM was identified by MS/MS.•The mechanism was confirmed by the simulation of molecular docking.
The ACE inhibitory activity of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) kernel's hydrolysates by gastrointestinal enzymes was studied. Results indicated that hydrolysate successively hydrolyzed by pepsin and trypsin, Pe–Tr–H, presented in vitro ACE inhibitory activity as IC50 0.87 ± 0.04 mg/ml. The Pe–Tr–H can in vivo decrease around 22 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 16 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 4 h after the oral administration, however the pistachio kernel powder can slightly lower SBP and DBP. The Pe–Tr–H with the highest activity was then separated by ultrafiltration membrane of 3 kDa, size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-15 and G-10 columns and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) consecutively. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, ACKEP, with the IC50 value of 126 μM, was identified by MALDI–TOF/TOF system. ACKEP has the same C-terminal residue as Lisinopril and Enalapril, which plays a key role in binding with ACE. The binding mechanism was explored at a molecular basis by docking experiments, which revealed that seven residues from ACE active site (His383, His387, Glu384, Arg522, Asp358, Ala356 and Asn70) and two atoms of ACKEP (O5, H60) greatly contributed to the combinative stabilization.
Journal: Process Biochemistry - Volume 49, Issue 5, May 2014, Pages 898–904