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Decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap matrix for engineering vascularized composite soft tissue flaps ☆

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
36 4 2016 19 PDF Available
Title
Decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap matrix for engineering vascularized composite soft tissue flaps ☆
Abstract

Using a perfusion decellularization protocol, we developed a decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap (DSAF) comprising extracellular matrix (ECM) and intact vasculature. Our DSAF had a dominant vascular pedicle, microcirculatory vascularity, and a sensory nerve network and retained three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous structures well. DSAF, which was composed of collagen and laminin with well-preserved growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor), was successfully repopulated with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which integrated with DSAF and formed 3D aggregates and vessel-like structures in vitro. We used microsurgery techniques to re-anastomose the recellularized DSAF into nude rats. In vivo, the engineered flap construct underwent neovascularization and constructive remodeling, which was characterized by the predominant infiltration of M2 macrophages and significant adipose tissue formation at 3 months postoperatively. Our results indicate that DSAF co-cultured with hASCs and HUVECs is a promising platform for vascularized soft tissue flap engineering. This platform is not limited by the flap size, as the entire construct can be immediately perfused by the recellularized vascular network following simple re-integration into the host using conventional microsurgical techniques.Statement of SignificanceSignificant soft tissue loss resulting from traumatic injury or tumor resection often requires surgical reconstruction using autologous soft tissue flaps. However, the limited availability of qualitative autologous flaps as well as the donor site morbidity significantly limits this approach. Engineered soft tissue flap grafts may offer a clinically relevant alternative to the autologous flap tissue. In this study, we engineered vascularized soft tissue free flap by using skin/adipose flap extracellular matrix scaffold (DSAF) in combination with multiple types of human cells. Following vascular reanastomosis in the recipient site, the engineered products successful regenerated large-scale fat tissue in vivo. This approach may provide a translatable platform for composite soft tissue free flap engineering for microsurgical reconstruction.

Graphical abstractSchematic representation of ex vivo microvascular free dermal/adipose flap engineering. DSAF is prepared from the donor rat and recellularized with the hASCs and HUVECs in vitro. Following vascular reanastomosis in the recipient site, the engineered flap construct, which creates a pro-regenerative environment, could activate an M2 macrophage-mediated constructive remodeling process in vivo. With this strategy, DSAF could be translated as a commercial tissue engineering product for personalized tissue repair and regeneration. hASCs: human adipose-derived stem cells; HUVECs: human umbilical vein endothelial cells.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (160 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Vascularized composite tissue flap engineering; Soft tissue flap engineering; Adipose tissue engineering; Skin/adipose tissue flap matrix; Extracellular matrix scaffold; Decellularization
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Decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap matrix for engineering vascularized composite soft tissue flaps ☆
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 35, 15 April 2016, Pages 166–184
Authors
, , , , , , , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us