Microbial pectinolytic enzymes: A review
Pectinases or petinolytic enzymes, hydrolyze pectic substances. They have a share of 25% in the global sales of food enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely distributed enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Protopectinases, polygalacturonases, lyases and pectin esterases are among the extensively studied pectinolytic enzymes. Protopectinases catalyze the solubilization of protopectin. Polygalacturonases hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid chain by addition of water and are the most abundant among all the pectinolytic enzymes. Lyases catalyze the trans-eliminative cleavage of the galacturonic acid polymer. Pectinesterases liberate pectins and methanol by de-esterifying the methyl ester linkages of the pectin backbone. Pectinolytic enzymes are of significant importance in the current biotechnological era with their all-embracing applications in fruit juice extraction and its clarification, scouring of cotton, degumming of plant fibers, waste water treatment, vegetable oil extraction, tea and coffee fermentations, bleaching of paper, in poultry feed additives and in the alcoholic beverages and food industries. The present review mainly contemplates on the types and structure of pectic substances, the classification of pectinolytic enzymes, their assay methods, physicochemical and biological properties and a bird's eye view of their industrial applications.
Journal: Process Biochemistry - Volume 40, Issue 9, September 2005, Pages 2931–2944