Omega-3/6 fatty acids: Alternative sources of production
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential components of higher eukaryotes. Single cell oils (SCO) are now widely accepted in the market place and there is a growing awareness of the health benefits of PUFAs, such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). ARA and DHA have also been used for fortification of infant formulae in many parts of the world. Fish oils are rich sources of DHA and EPA and a limited number of plant oilseeds are good sources of other PUFAs. Marine protists and dinoflagellates, such as species of Thraustochytrium, Schizochytrium and Crypthecodinium are the rich sources of DHA, whereas microalgae like Phaeodactylum and Monodus are good sources of EPA. Species of lower fungi Mortierella accumulate a high percentage of ARA in the lipid fraction. In this paper, various microbiological and enzymatic methods for synthesis of PUFAs are discussed.
Journal: Process Biochemistry - Volume 40, Issue 12, December 2005, Pages 3627–3652