Enzymatic hydrolysis of cod (Gadus morhua) by-products ☆: Optimization of yield and properties of lipid and protein fractions
The main products of hydrolysis of fish by-products are hydrolysed protein and oil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of initial heat inactivation of endogenous enzymes, addition of water prior to hydrolysis, use of different commercial enzymes and combination of enzymes on the yield and purity of the protein and oil fractions after enzymatic hydrolysis of cod by-products. This study was designed to examine how all these factors were effective for destroying protein–lipid complexes in order to obtain pure oil and protein fractions and reduce the insoluble fraction.Initial heating of raw material changed both raw material properties and inactivated endogenous enzymes thereby influencing the following hydrolysis. High amount of lipids in raw material combined with initial heating caused formation of protein–lipid complexes which was found in all protein containing fractions. The main constituents of the lipids in the complexes were phospholipids and other polar lipids. Insoluble protein–lipid complexes formed lead to increased amount of sludge, reduced FPH yield and high amount of lipids in FPH. The highest amount of separated oil was obtained in the experiments after initial heating without added water. These treatments also reduce amount of emulsion, which is not a desirable product after hydrolysis. Initial heating caused denaturation of protein, which decreased their emulsifying properties.Results showed that it is not possible to obtain all desirable quality indicators such as: maximum oil and FPH yield, minimum emulsion and sludge yield and the highest protein recovery in FPH with the lowest amount of lipids in FPH fraction by using only one hydrolysis process. Therefore, the aim and requirements for the final products should be prioritised and defined very clearly before the process is designed taking into account the composition of raw material. Hydrolysis of unheated raw material with Alcalase and addition of water was the best compromise taking into account the mentioned quality indicators.
Journal: Process Biochemistry - Volume 40, Issue 12, December 2005, Pages 3680–3692