Divide and conquer: development and cell cycle genes in plant transformation
Genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants remains unfeasible for the majority of plant species. We propose that inducible expression and/or suppression of the genes that control the cell cycle and development, by altering chromatin structure and exerting epigenetic control of gene expression, might substantially improve competence for transformation and/or regeneration. Transformation efficiency was higher in cells with nuclei at the S and G2 phases, and manipulating the genes whose activation or silencing promote the G1–S transition has increased both transient and stable transformation. Controlling the cell cycle directly, using RBR and VIP1, or indirectly, through hormone regulation using IPT and ESR1, has improved rates of stable transformation. Other target genes that might promote incorporation of DNA and/or pluripotency of cells include HP1, CycD3 and CycD1. The availability of large EST databanks, complete plant-genome sequences and/or inducible gene expression systems create opportunities for testing homologous genes to increase competence of transformation and regeneration.
Journal: - Volume 24, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages 267–273