Brave new (strept)avidins in biotechnology
Avidin and streptavidin are widely used in (strept)avidin–biotin technology, which is based on their tight biotin-binding capability. These techniques are exceptionally diverse, ranging from simple purification and labeling methods to sophisticated drug pre-targeting and nanostructure-building approaches. Improvements in protein engineering have provided new possibilities to develop tailored protein tools. The (strept)avidin scaffold has been engineered to extend the existing range of applications and to develop new ones. Modifications to (strept)avidins – such as simple amino acid substitutions to reduce biotin binding and alter physico–chemical characters – have recently developed into more sophisticated changes, including chimeric (strept)avidins, topology rearrangements and stitching of non-natural amino acids into the active sites. In this review, we highlight the current status in genetically engineered (strept)avidins and illustrate their versatility as advanced tools in the multiple fields of modern bioscience, medicine and nanotechnology.
Journal: - Volume 25, Issue 6, June 2007, Pages 269–277