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Esterification of levulinic acid with butanol over ion exchange resins

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
39091 45806 2016 11 PDF Available
Title
Esterification of levulinic acid with butanol over ion exchange resins
Abstract

•Ion exchange resins are effective catalysts for butyl levulinate production at 80 °C.•Selectivity to butyl levulinate is higher than 99% over acidic ion exchangers.•High swelling capacity and low acid site density are key for the synthesis of the ester.•Gel-type resins with low crosslinking degree are the best catalysts.

Alkyl levulinates are biobased chemicals with a great number of applications and great biofuel potential for blending to conventional diesel or gasoline. The present work focuses on the liquid-phase synthesis of butyl levulinate (BL) by esterification of levulinic acid (LA) with 1-butanol (BuOH) using a set of acidic ion-exchange resins. Experiments were performed at 80 °C and 2.5 MPa in a batch reactor by using an initial molar ratio AL/BuOH of 1/3 and a catalyst loading of 0.8%. It has been found that BL could be successfully obtained over ion-exchange resins with a selectivity higher than 99.5%. LA conversions ranged from 64% (Amberlyst 46, macroreticular, surface sulfonated) to 94% (Dowex 50Wx2, gel-type resin, conventionally sulfonated) at 8 h reaction time. By comparing their catalytic behavior, it was seen that resins morphology plays a very important role in the synthesis of BL making easier the access of reactants to acid sites. Accessibility of LA and BuOH to acid centers was high over highly swollen and low polymer density resins. Thus, gel-type resins with low divinylbenzene (DVB) content have been found as the most suitable to produce BL, e.g. Dowex 50Wx2, Dowex 50Wx4 and Purolite® CT224. Among them, Dowex 50Wx2 (2% DVB) is the most efficient catalyst tested.

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Keywords
Butyl levulinate; Levulinic acid; Catalysis; Ion-exchange resins
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Esterification of levulinic acid with butanol over ion exchange resins
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 517, 5 May 2016, Pages 56–66
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us