Industrial scale experience on steam reforming of CO2-rich gas
•Reforming of CO2-rich gas has been performed in industrial scale.•Dry and steam methane reforming are similar in mechanism, kinetics, etc.•Thermodynamic limitations for carbon formation define possible operation range.•SPARG or noble metal catalysts can be used for severe reforming of CO2-rich gas.
The following article summarizes experience on application on industrial scale reforming of CO2-rich gas, showing how nanoscale science and detailed catalyst information have been bridged to large scale reforming plants. Reforming of methane with CO2 alone (“dry methane reforming”, DMR) is closely related to steam methane reforming (SMR), and reaction mechanism and kinetics are comparable in the two reactions. This implies that much of the knowledge from SMR can be applied on DMR as well, including catalyst development. The primary challenge of reforming of CO2-rich gas is carbon formation, as the low H/C ratio of the feed implies that a high potential for carbon formation exists. Thus, catalysts resistant to carbon formation are required; where noble metals, partly passivated nickel catalysts, and promoted nickel catalysts have good potential. In an industrial perspective, reforming of CO2-rich gas will require a co-feed of water to decrease the severity of the gas for carbon formation and for conversion of any higher hydrocarbons. Use of traditional nickel catalyst has been demonstrated at industrial scale of dry synthesis gas production up to 133,000 Nm3/h, but this requires a co-feed of large amounts of water. Better success has been demonstrated with the SPARG (sulfur passivated reforming) process or noble metal catalysts, where large-scale operation has been done under very severe conditions to produce synthesis gas with a relative low H2/CO ratio.
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Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 495, 5 April 2015, Pages 141–151