From SNPs to functional polymorphism: The insight into biotechnology applications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in the genome. Scanning a genome for SNPs can help identify millions of potentially informative biomarkers. SNPs have been extensively used as molecular markers in human disease genetics, pharmacogenetics, and breeding, but SNPs have not been widely used in the bioprocess community. In biotechnology applications such as bioprocess development, SNPs may serve as genetic markers for phenotypes of interest such as those related to cell growth and viability, specific productivity, or stability. Furthermore, SNPs that relate to particular phenotypes may be targets for metabolic and cellular engineering. This review introduces study designs that have been used to link SNPs and phenotypes. The review then focuses on the downstream effects of the SNPs at DNA, RNA and protein levels. Finally, this review discusses specific examples to apply SNPs for breeding, strain evolution, and biomolecule production. Large scale SNP studies represent an opportunity to apply new genome-scale technologies to address current limitations and questions relevant to the biotechnology community such as cell line generation and selection.
Journal: Biochemical Engineering Journal - Volume 49, Issue 2, 15 April 2010, Pages 149–158