Catalytic, regioselective, and green methods for rearrangement of 1,2-diaryl epoxides to carbonyl compounds employing metallic triflates, Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids (ILs), and IL/microwave; experimental and computational substituent effect study on ary
•Regioselective and green methods for ring opening of 1,2-diarylepoxide are reported.•Catalysis by metallic triflates in DCM and in ionic liquids (ILs).•Catalysis by Brønsted acidic ILs in IL solvent or DCM.•Catalysis by ILs under microwave with no added catalyst with recycling/reuse of IL.•Singly substituted diaryl-oxiranes favor aldehyde formation except with p-NO2 and p-CN.
The Lewis-acid catalyzed rearrangement of parent trans-stilbene oxide 1 was studied with M(OTf)3/DCM and M(OTf)3/[BMIM][BF4] (M = Bi, Al, Ga, Sc, and Yb; [BMIM] = butylmethylimidazolium) and Zn(NTf2)2, and with Bi(OTf)3/[BMIM][X] (X = NTf2, OTf, PF6, and BF4), employing 5 mol% of catalyst. Selective formation of 2,2-dipheylacetaldehyde 2 (phenyl migration product) was observed in all cases, with Bi(OTf)3 proving most efficient. The rearrangement of 1 was also effected in [BMIM][X] (X = NTf2, OTf, PF6, and BF4) without an added catalyst under microwave MW irradiation, and X = PF6 gave the highest yield and selectivity. Efficient and selective rearrangement of 1–2 was also observed with 0.1–0.3 equiv. of [BMIM(SO3H)][OTf] in DCM and in [BMIM][X]. A substituent effect study was performed with a series of singly substituted 1,2-diphenyl oxiranes (with X = OMe, Me, F, CN, and NO2) with 5 mol% Bi(OTf)3 in DCM and in [BMIM][NTf2]. Notable formation of ketones was observed with the NO2 and CN derivatives. Competing formation of ketones was also observed in [BMIM][PF6] under MW and under Brønsted acid catalysis with [BMIM(SO3H)][OTf] in DCM and in [BMIM][NTf2]. The aryl versus H migration was studied computationally by DFT and MP2 methods and by including solvation effects (IEFPCM).
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Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 486, 22 September 2014, Pages 1–11