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Selective synthesis of p-ethylphenol by gas-phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
39434 45823 2014 8 PDF Available
Title
Selective synthesis of p-ethylphenol by gas-phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol
Abstract

•Zeolites HZSM5 and HMCM22 efficiently catalyze phenol ethylation.•Zeolite HMCM22 promotes the selective formation of p-ethylphenol.•Zeolite HMCM22 yields 41% p-ethylphenol at 523 K and 71% phenol conversion.•Catalyst deactivation rates increase proportionally to coke formation.

The selective synthesis of p-ethylphenol from gas-phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol was studied on zeolites HZSM5 and HMCM22 at 523 K. Phenol reacted directly with ethanol to form ethylphenylether by O-alkylation, and p- and o-ethylphenol isomers by C-alkylation; secondary products were m-ethylphenol and dialkylated compounds. Both zeolites presented similar activity and formed low amounts of ethylphenylether and dialkylated products, but exhibited different ethylphenol isomers distribution. In fact, for a contact time of 99.3 g h/mol the selectivity to p-ethylphenol was 51.4% on HMCM22 and only 14.2% on HZSM5. The superior performance of zeolite HMCM22 for selectively producing p-ethylphenol was due to its narrower pore channels that suppressed the formation of dialkylated products and hampered by diffusional constraints the formation of o-ethylphenol. The maximum p-ethylphenol yield obtained on HMCM22 was 41% at a contact time of 250 g h/mol; for higher contact times, p-ethylphenol was increasingly converted to m-ethylphenol. All the samples deactivated on stream because of coke formation. The carbon amount built on HMCM22 diminished when contact time was increased thereby indicating that coke was mainly formed from the reactants. Additional catalytic runs showed that phenol was the main responsible of catalyst deactivation, probably because of its strong adsorption on surface active sites.

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Keywords
p-Ethylphenol; Ethylphenols; Alkylation; Phenol; Acid zeolites
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Selective synthesis of p-ethylphenol by gas-phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 486, 22 September 2014, Pages 77–84
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us