Titanium phosphate glass microspheres for bone tissue engineering
We have demonstrated the successful production of titanium phosphate glass microspheres in the size range of ∼10–200 μm using an inexpensive, efficient, easily scalable process and assessed their use in bone tissue engineering applications. Glasses of the following compositions were prepared by melt-quench techniques: 0.5P2O5–0.4CaO–(0.1 − x)Na2O–xTiO2, where x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mol fraction (denoted as Ti3, Ti5 and Ti7 respectively). Several characterization studies such as differential thermal analysis, degradation (performed using a novel time lapse imaging technique) and pH and ion release measurements revealed significant densification of the glass structure with increased incorporation of TiO2 in the glass from 3 to 5 mol.%, although further TiO2 incorporation up to 7 mol.% did not affect the glass structure to the same extent. Cell culture studies performed using MG63 cells over a 7-day period clearly showed the ability of the microspheres to provide a stable surface for cell attachment, growth and proliferation. Taken together, the results confirm that 5 mol.% TiO2 glass microspheres, on account of their relative ease of preparation and favourable biocompatibility, are worthy candidates for use as substrate materials in bone tissue engineering applications.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2012, Pages 4181–4190