Highly efficient transfer hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones using potassium formate over AlO(OH)-entrapped ruthenium catalysts
•AlO(OH)-entrapped ruthenium forms highly active robust catalyst for catalytic transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds.•Potassium formate is used as a CO2-neutral hydrogen donor.•Low metal loadings give high turnover frequencies.•The reduction of both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes is especially facile.•Highest activity in as-prepared catalyst without requirement for pretreatment.
Ruthenium encapsulated in an aluminium oxyhydroxide-support was investigated for the transfer hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones with potassium formate as a sustainable green hydrogen donor. The entrapped ruthenium were narrowly distributed with mean diameters of 1.5–1.8 nm. XPS studies show that the ruthenium was present as Ru0 and Ru3+. The catalysts showed high activity even at low metal loadings of 0.5–2 wt.%. The maximum TOF for benzaldehyde hydrogenation was over 1 wt.% Ru. The reduction of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes was facile and occurred with 100% yield. In comparison, ketones were less readily reduced although moderate to excellent yields could be obtained after a longer reaction time. No leaching of ruthenium was observed in contrast to a catalyst prepared by wet impregnation. Washing of the used catalyst with water and ethanol effectively removed the deposited bicarbonate co-product and the recycled catalyst maintained its activity up to five runs.
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Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 484, 22 August 2014, Pages 51–58