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Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Ln (La, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho) loaded ZnO nanocatalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
39813 45837 2014 13 PDF Available
Title
Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Ln (La, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho) loaded ZnO nanocatalysts
Abstract

•La, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho loaded ZnO nanocatalysts prepared.•Ln loading increased surface areas and pore volumes.•Highest normalized rates detected in the presence of bare catalyst.•Among Ln–ZnO catalysts, La–ZnO displayed pronounced photoactivity.

Lanthanide (Ln = La, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho) loaded ZnO catalysts (Ln–ZnO) were synthesized, characterized and tested for the decolorization of methyl orange (MO). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis yields crystalline sizes of ZnO and Ln2O3 nanoparticles. Surface area (BET) measurements showed higher surface areas and pore volumes for Ln–ZnO catalysts in comparison to bare ZnO. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed obvious variations in the surface morphology of the bare catalyst after Ln loading. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and elemental mapping images displayed the existence of Ln ions on Ln–ZnO catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the formation of ZnO nanoparticles while the form of Zn2+ oxidation state on the catalyst surfaces was demonstrated by the sharp Zn 2p peaks. The absorption edges in the UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–Vis DRS) of all Ln–ZnO catalysts were found to be slightly shifted to higher energy regions. The photocatalytic performances of the bare ZnO and Ln–ZnO catalysts were evaluated under UV irradiation following pseudo-first order kinetics. The highest normalized rates were obtained in the presence of the bare catalyst. Among the Ln–ZnO catalysts, 1% La–ZnO demonstrated the highest activities. The photocatalytic reactions were also explored in terms of Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Ln ions were discussed in terms of their loading percentages, complex formation abilities with Lewis bases, electronic configurations, adsorption capacities, electron accepting and hydroxyl radical (•OH) formation capabilities. A plausible mechanism was proposed for the route of MO degradation.

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Keywords
Ln loading; ZnO nanoparticles; Photocatalytic decolorization; Methyl orange; Degradation mechanism
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Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Ln (La, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho) loaded ZnO nanocatalysts
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 475, 5 April 2014, Pages 27–39
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
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Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us