Palladium supported on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and application as heterogeneous catalyst for Mizoroki–Heck and Sonogashira reactions under ligand-free and air atmosphere conditions
•Palladium (Pd) supported on Zinc Oxide.•Nano crystalline Pd/ZnO as highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst.•Synthesis, characterization, and application of nano Pd/ZnO.•Ligand-free and air atmosphere conditions.
In this paper, a novel Palladium (Pd) supported on ZnO nanoparticles was readily synthesized and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and BET specific surface area measurement. The total amount of palladium particles on ZnO was determined by induced coupled plasma (ICP) analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) which is 9.8 wt%. Percentage of accessible Pd as active catalyst is also estimated to 2.72% based on the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Nano Pd/ZnO was found as a new, novel, and excellent heterogeneous catalyst for ligand-free C–C bond formation through the Mizoroki–Heck and Sonogashira reactions under air atmosphere without the use of any Ar or N2 flow. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled several times without marked loss of activity.
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Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 475, 5 April 2014, Pages 477–486