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Single and combined Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst deactivation by iron and calcium metal–organic contaminants

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
40198 45845 2014 15 PDF Available
Title
Single and combined Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst deactivation by iron and calcium metal–organic contaminants
Abstract

•Depending on iron concentration, poisoning and/or pore blocking phenomena occur.•Iron species nature is a key parameter which influences the deposition profile.•Iron clusters catalyze dehydrogenation reactions and enhance coke selectivity.•Calcium contamination decreases the hydrothermal stability of FCC catalysts.•No synergetic effect between iron and calcium contamination was highlighted.

The single and combined effects on catalyst stability, activity and selectivity of iron and calcium metal–organic contaminants deposited on a fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst via a cyclic deactivation treatment have been studied. It has been found that iron contamination decreases catalyst activity by two different mechanisms. At low iron concentration the deactivation is mainly due to the direct poisoning of acid sites while at higher iron concentration the deactivation is mainly due to pore blocking. Moreover, iron clusters formed on FCC catalyst particles catalyze dehydrogenation reactions which lead to a higher coke selectivity. Calcium contamination is also at the origin of a large deactivation of the FCC catalyst which occurs by neutralizing acid sites and in a large extension by lowering the hydrothermal stability, at the origin of an important collapse of the zeolitic component. The combined contamination by iron and calcium does not show synergetic effects. Nevertheless, the fact that coke formation increases with iron can enhance the catalyst temperature in the industrial regenerator, leading to a further negative effect of calcium via zeolite destruction.

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Keywords
FCC catalyst deactivation; Metal–organic contaminants; Iron contamination; Calcium contamination; Combined iron–calcium contamination; Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process; Micro-Activity Test (MAT)
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Single and combined Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst deactivation by iron and calcium metal–organic contaminants
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 469, 17 January 2014, Pages 451–465
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Price was $35.95
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Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
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