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Efficient conversion of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic mesostructured silicas

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
40297 45849 2013 7 PDF Available
Title
Efficient conversion of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic mesostructured silicas
Abstract

•SO3H-SBA-15 has been successfully used in the synthesis of alkyl levulinates.•Moderate acid strength and hydrophobicity is the key of the catalytic performance.•Alkyl levulinates yield close to 100% is achieved adjusting reaction conditions.

Sulfonic mesoporous silicas have demonstrated an outstanding catalytic performance in the esterification of levulinic acid with different alcohols to produce alkyl levulinates, a family of chemicals considered to be excellent oxygenated fuel extenders for gasoline, diesel and biodiesel. Catalyst screening indicated that propylsulfonic acid-modified SBA-15 material was the most active one, among tested materials, due to a combination of moderately strong sulfonic acid sites with relative high surface hydrophobicity. Under optimized reaction conditions (T = 117 °C, ethanol/levulinic acid molar ratio = 4.86/1 and catalyst/levulinic acid = 7 wt%) almost 100% of levulinic acid conversion was achieved after 2 h of reaction, being negligible the presence of levulinic acid by-products or ethers coming from intermolecular dehydration of alcohols. The catalyst has been reused, without any regeneration treatment, up to three times keeping almost the high initial activity. Interestingly, a close catalytic performance to that achieved using ethanol has been obtained with bulkier alcohols.

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Keywords
Sulfonic acids; Levulinic acid; Alkyl levulinates; Fuel formulation; Acid catalysis
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Efficient conversion of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic mesostructured silicas
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 466, 10 September 2013, Pages 116–122
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
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Full-text PDF Download
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Any Questions? feel free to contact us