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Structure and composition of hard coke deposited on industrial fluid catalytic cracking catalysts by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
40298 45849 2013 8 PDF Available
Title
Structure and composition of hard coke deposited on industrial fluid catalytic cracking catalysts by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance
Abstract

•Coke extracted from regenerated and spent FCC catalysts via demineralization.•Structure and composition of coke studied by various solid state NMR techniques.•Coke are more condensed in regenerated catalysts compared to spent catalysts.•Temperature affects coke structure; feed and process on the nature and composition.

Carbonaceous deposits (hard coke) were studied by various solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques after demineralization of the spent and regenerated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts obtained from Indian refineries. A number of structural parameters such as aromaticity, H/C ratio, fraction of protonated (faP) and non-protonated (faNP) aromatic carbons, number of pericondensed rings per average molecule (Nperi), and aromatic condensation index (γar) are derived from the NMR data. Findings of thirty-two and thirty-nine aromatic rings in coke from regenerated catalysts and five and nineteen rings in coke from spent catalysts are rationalized by various parameters such as feed, temperature and process conditions of FCC reactor on the basis of condensation. The coke are found more condensed in regenerated catalysts compared to spent catalysts revealing that the temperature has a marked effect in the evolution of coke structure whereas feeds and other process conditions govern the nature and composition of coke.

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Keywords
FCC catalysts; Hard coke; 13C NMR; Pericondensed aromatics
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Structure and composition of hard coke deposited on industrial fluid catalytic cracking catalysts by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 466, 10 September 2013, Pages 123–130
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Price was $35.95
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Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
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