Enhanced photocatalytic activity of multi-doped TiO2 for the degradation of methyl orange
We report the synergistic effect of dopants like Gd, N and S in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Nanosized TiO2 doped at both cationic and anionic sites by Gd, N and S exhibited increased photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 doped with either Gd or N and S. All the doped TiO2 existed as anatase phase and no separate phase due to Gd2O3 was seen up to a Gd concentration of 2%. The particle size as seen from the transmission electron micrograph was ∼25 nm. The optical absorption property of TiO2 was improved by doping and redshift of the absorption edge is seen for all doped samples compared to pristine TiO2. The red shift of the absorption edge was the highest for the multiple ion-doped sample. Presence of bonded N and S in TiO2 was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fluorescence lifetime studies indicated an enhanced lifetime for the charge carriers in the doped system compared to pristine TiO2. Photocatalytic activity study showed that the multi-doped sample has the highest activity for the degradation of methyl orange compared to Gd-TiO2, NS-TiO2 and pristine TiO2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the multi-doped TiO2 is attributed to factors such as improved optical absorption property and improved lifetime of the charge carriers.
Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (141 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Doping with multiple ions (Gd, N, S) enhances the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. ► In the multi-doped TiO2, S substituted for Ti whereas N substituted for O. ► Enhanced absorption of visible light is observed for multidoped-TiO2. ► Lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers is higher in the doped samples.
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volumes 443–444, 7 November 2012, Pages 96–102